Cos’è l’allenamento Full Body?

Il full body è un sistema di allenamento con lo scopo di coinvolgere, per ogni seduta di allenamento, più gruppi muscolari possibili.

Questo permette di ottenere una crescita muscolare in maniera omogenea, rendendo il fisico molto armonioso poiché non trascura nessun gruppo muscolare in ogni seduta di allenamento.

A differenza dell’allenamento classico del body building con le split routines, dove ogni seduta di allenamento comporta la suddivisone degli esercizi per gruppi muscolari, il full body risulta essere un allenamento completo perché non si concentra su una zona specifica del corpo, ma permette di sviluppare la massa muscolare in modo omogeneo e uniforme.

La stragrande maggioranza di chi frequenta le palestre non conosce o pratica l’allenamento in stile full body, oppure, di solito viene utilizzato principalmente a scopo di ricondizionamento muscolare dopo un periodo di stop oppure nelle prime settimane di palestra per chi è alle prime armi.

Vi è, infatti, la convinzione tra i praticanti della sala pesi che, per ottenere la massima crescita muscolare, sia necessario colpire i vari distretti muscolari da ogni angolo possibile e con un numero elevato di esercizi.

Invece, le split routines sono ottime per gli atleti molto avanzati e/o agonisti, ma certamente non per atleti principianti ed intermedi, per i quali risultano decisamente più adatte allenamenti in full body.

Con questo metodo di allenamento, non occorre fare tanti esercizi per ogni gruppo muscolare, occorre semplicemente concentrarsi sugli esercizi fondamentali: Squat, Stacco da terra, Panca Piana, Rematore con il bilanciere, Military Press, Pull ups e Dips. Questi esercizi vengono chiamati multi-articolari e ritenuti fondamentali in quanto riescono a stimolare più muscoli contemporaneamente. Essi hanno uno schema motorio più complesso rispetto agli esercizi di isolamento muscolari e permettono anche un dispendio calorico maggiore e quindi utili anche per il dimagrimento.

Ricapitolando le sedute di allenamento devono essere strutturate principalmente da esercizi fondamentali in modo da reclutare più gruppi muscolari possibili e minimizzare l’uso di esercizi complementari (alzate laterali, croci su panca, pulley, leg extension, curl manubri ecc..). Utilizzare molte serie per i fondamentali privilegiando il lavoro tecnico per evitare scompensi che possono comportare infortuni.

Perché allenarsi in Full Body

Molti si chiederanno perché potrebbe essere utile ad allenarsi in full body rispetto alle classiche split routines. In questo capitolo elencheremo una serie di vantaggi di questo tipo di allenamento.

Innanzitutto uno dei motivi principali consiste nel fatto che il corpo non funziona a compartimenti stagni e non recupera a zone, quindi se lunedì alleno i pettorali e martedì spalle e braccia non solo sto andando a stressare distretti già utilizzati nell’allenamento del giorno prima, ma sto anche stressando nuovamente l’organismo e ne deriva che allenandomi in maniera full body ottengo un recupero muscolare e sistemico pressoché totale.

Essendo caratterizzate dalla presenza quasi esclusiva di esercizi multi-articolari, l’impatto metabolico che ne deriva è enorme e sotto questo profilo risultano particolarmente adatte anche a chi vuole perdere peso; inoltre nei giorni di non allenamento permettono al soggetto non solo di effettuare sedute di allenamento cardio-vascolare, ma anche di dedicarsi a qualche altra disciplina e sotto questo profilo risultano particolarmente adatte anche agli atleti che praticano sport diversi.

L’allenamento full body permette di migliorare il lavoro tecnico sugli esercizi fondamentali e di conseguenza aumenta anche la forza muscolare in generale, questo perché permettono un volume e un tonnellaggio nella settimana maggiori rispetto alle split routines e nel caso se, per cause oggettive, capita di saltare uno o due allenamenti, il corpo è comunque già stato allenato nella sua totalità.

Inoltre lavorare troppo con esercizi complementari o di isolamento muscolare, comporta allungare troppo la seduta di allenamento e rappresentano, inoltre, un ulteriore stress per le articolazioni, dato che impegnano spalle, gomiti, polsi e ginocchio (esempio leg extension) aumentando il rischio di infiammazioni croniche. Concentrarsi molto sugli esercizi complementari toglie serie e ripetizioni sui fondamentali e se non saputi dosare, ostacolano i progressi sugli esercizi multi-articolari.

Per i soggetti natural che non hanno una struttura muscolare di base decente e non riescono a crescere muscolarmente facilmente, lavorare sull’isolamento muscolare o su esercizi complementari non permetteranno a questi soggetti di aumentare di peso e, quindi allenarsi in full body li aiuterà ad aumentare il volume muscolare dei gruppi più grossi.

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